Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :

  • Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
  • Free From Thermal and Physical Discomfort
  • Free From Injury, Illness and Pain
  • Freedom to Express Most Normal Behavior Patterns
  • Free from Fear and Troubles

 

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Artificial Insemination of Chickens

Artificial insemination of chickens is a technique of inserting the sperm of rooster into a hen to produce good quality eggs in a short time using an insemination gun. Artificial insemination is also known as AI.

In Indonesia, the increase in chicken production in general continues to experience a significant increase. The population of non-breed chicken, layer, and broiler chickens was 1,865,125 in 2014 and increased to 2,384,147 in 2018 (DIRJEN Livestock and Animal Health, 2018).

This shows that there is great potential for livestock in Indonesia to be able to increase the number of chicken production.

Therefore, innovation in the field of chicken farming will success. Artificial insemination is one example. Because by doing artificial insemination, superior breeds of cicken can be produced.

A. Definition of Artificial Insemination of Chickens

Artificial insemination is a technique of introducing sperm into the female reproductive tract. In artificial insemination of chickens, the process of entering sperm is carried out through the cloaca.

Insemination is done using a tool called an insemination gun. The sperm was previously placed in a diluent, one of which was physiological NaCl solution.

The artificial insemination stage in chickens must be carried out carefully, so that the sperm is not damaged or contaminated with bacteria in the chicken cloaca area.

B. Purpose of Artificial Insemination of Chickens

The following are some of the purposes of artificial insemination of chickens :

  • To increase the productivity of chickens, both in egg and meat production.
  • Can improve the quality of DOC through crossbreeding. The results of various crosses in chickens are called strains. The examples of chicken strains are Lohman 202, Isa Brown, Jumbo, and so on. The name of the cross-breeding chicken (strain) is given the name according to the inventor or company that produces the strain.
  • Increase time effectiveness. Because artificial insemination can speed up the time needed to produce fertile eggs and the resulting DOC is uniform.

C. Benefits of Artificial Insemination of Chickens

  • Males are required for artificial insemination less than natural mating.
  • Can be cross-breeding with superior parents quickly.
  • Quality improvement through crossbreeding.
  • Overcome the difficulties of superior males to perform natural mating.
  • Speed up the time of marriage.

Do you want ro read article about EDS (Egg Drop Syndrome) in chickens ? Click here

D. Factors that Affecting the Success of Artificial Insemination of Chickens

There are several factors that determine the success of AI in chickens, including :

  • Fertility of the rooster spermatozoa used
  • Type of Diluent used
  • Dosage of semen used during AI
  • Post-collection, dilution and storage of cement
  • AI time required. Because sperm can only survive for approximately 30 minutes in the diluent tube
  • AI method used. AI with the intravaginal deposition method causes a higher level of stress than the intrauterine deposition method.

E. Stage of Artificial Insemination of Chickens

● Selection of Parent

To get a good breeding, superior parent selection must be done. The following are some of the requirements for selecting a good hen for artificial insemination :

RoosterHen
No defectsNo defects
Healthy conditionHealthy condition and have a good appetite
The ability to reproduce is high and must be in productionIn maintenance not mixed with the female parent
Age range 7 months – 12 monthsAge range 1.5 years – 3 years

● Special Treatment

In performing artificial insemination, it is better if the chicken is placed in a battery cage to reduce the level of stress caused. Anti-stress vitamins were also injected after artificial insemination of chickens.

● Sperm Collection

Preparation of Tools and Materials. Before taking sperm on the rooster, make sure all the tools are ready. Some of these tools are :

  • Syringe
  • Diluent tube
  • Tube to hold sperm
  • Physiological NaCl 0.9%
  • Clean wipe

● Sperm Collection of Chicken

Sperm collection should be done by two people. One person is in charge of providing stimulation to the rooster and the other person is in charge of collecting sperm in the tube.

The first step that must be done is to clean the dirt that sticks around the cloaca. Furthermore, the chicken is given a stimulus to release sperm.

Stimulation is done by massaging and stroking the back of the chicken, starting from the base of the neck to the base of the tail. Successful stimulation is indicated by the rising of the feathers on the tail. That’s when the male releases thick white sperm. Sperm that has been released is collected into a sperm collection tube.

Then given physiological NaCl solution 0.9% into the tube with the ratio of Sperm : NaCl is 1 : 6-10. Sperm that have been collected can last in the tube for about 30 minutes.

● Implementation of Artificial Insemination

There are two techniques that can be used to insert the male parent’s sperm into the female parent’s reproductive organs.

Namely intravaginal deposition (through the chicken’s vagina) with a depth of about 3 cm and intrauterine deposition (through the uterus) with a syringe depth of about 7 cm. Here are the steps for artificial insemination that can be done :

  • Cleaning the dirt around the cloaca in chickens
  • Apply pressure under the cloaca to clarify the reproductive tract on the left and the digestive tract on the right
  • Sperm collection that has been diluted as much as 0.1 ml – 0.2 ml
  • Inserting sperm with a syringe (without a needle)
  • Injecting anti-stress vitamins (can be done in the pectoral area)

F. Chicken AI Success Indicators

An indicator of the success of artificial insemination in Chicken is to look at the eggs produced by hens. That is by doing candling to detect whether the egg is fertile (there are embryos) or infertile (empty).

If the released egg contains an embryo inside, it can be said that the artificial insemination was successful.

G. Conclusion

The difference between artificial insemination in cattle and artificial insemination in chickens is the tool used, especially the insemination gun. Because the reproductive tract of chickens and cows have different anatomy.

The process of artificial insemination in chickens is an appropriate and fast way to increase the population of chickens in a short time. In addition, superior breeders will produce superior eggs and meat as well.

Thank you for reading the article about Artificial Insemination (AI) of Chickens, hopefully we can use this knowledge wisely.

Bibliography :

  • Asmarawati, Widya., et al. 2013. Effect of Dose of Sperm Diluted with Physiological NaCl on Egg Fertility in Artificial Insemination of Kampung Chickens. Yogyakarta : Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Gadjah Mada University. ISSN 0126-4400
  • Directorate General of Livestock and Animal Health. Livestock Statistics and Animal Health. Jakarta, 2018
Gigih Fikrillah S
Gigih Fikrillah S

Hi ! I am a veterinary student at Universitas Airlangga. I hope that what I wrote can help you to change the world. Laatahzan

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