Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :

  • Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
  • Free From Thermal and Physical Discomfort
  • Free From Injury, Illness and Pain
  • Freedom to Express Most Normal Behavior Patterns
  • Free from Fear and Troubles

 

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EDS in Chickens

Egg Drop Syndrome or EDS in chickens – Layer is a disease caused by Adenovirus from the Adenoviridae family. At first, EDS was discovered by Van Eck in the Netherlands in 1976. Therefore, this disease is often called EDS’76 or Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976.

Van Eck found cases of decreased egg production and poor egg quality, because the eggs have thin shells. Another incident also found in Northern Ireland in 1977. In Indonesia, the incidence of EDS has been reported in several laying hens farms in Bali, and an outbreak in the Kupang area (Ditjennak, 2014) in (Kencana, 2017).

The incidence of EDS generally attacks laying hens when they are peak production, EDS can cause production targets not achieved. So EDS can cause big losses. Knowledge about the virus that causes EDS must continue to be studied, because the EDS virus has hemagglutinin which can agglomerate erythrocytes.

A. Causes of EDS in Chickens

EDS or Egg Drop Syndrome is a disease in laying hens caused by a virus from the Adenoviridae family. The virus is icosahedral symmetric, containing a single linear molecule of double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ds-DNA). In addition, the EDS virus does not have an envelope and can replicate in the cell nucleus and form to inclusion bodies.

It should be noted that the EDS virus can grow well in duck embryos and can agglutinate avian erythrocytes. However, EDS virus cannot agglutinate mammalian erythrocytes (Fitriawati, 2015).

EDS virus is an adenovirus capable of agglutinating chicken erythrocytes. This is because the EDS virus has a fiber which is a polypeptide trimer and acts as a hemagglutinin. Therefore, this virus can be tested using Haemagglutination (HA) and Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) techniques.

B. Symptoms of EDS in Chickens

egg drop syndrome eds in chickens

Symptoms of Egg Drop Syndrome (EDS) in laying hens are usually seen in adult chickens, 25-35 weeks chickens with typical symptoms of decreased egg production. In addition, the quality of the eggs produced is also poor.

Eggs produced by chickens infected with EDS show a faded eggshell color, have a soft structure and thin texture. In fact, in some cases EDS in chickens shows eggs with small sizes.

The decrease of egg production at peak production can reach 20% to 50% with a period of 6-8 weeks. Of course, this is not something easy for chicken egg producers, because it can cause huge losses.

Other symptoms caused by EDS are decreased appetite, lethargic chickens, and pale combs and wattles. Young chickens attacked by EDS will not be able to produce eggs optimally.

C. How EDS is Transmitted to Chickens

Species that are susceptible to EDS virus are poultry, such as ducks, turkeys, geese, and chickens. All chickens can be infected with EDS, especially layer chickens aged 26-55 weeks. The EDS virus is not affected by the rainy and summer seasons. Even so, the stress factor can certainly make things worse.

Transmission of EDS in chickens can occur vertically and horizontally. Vertical transmission occurs through eggs from mother to chicks, while horizontal transmission can occur through infected chickens to healthy chickens.

The mechanism of transmission occurs through food and drink contaminated with tracheal secretions containing the virus from infected chickens. Vertical transmission takes place faster than horizontal transmission.

D. EDS Control in Chickens

Control is an aspect that includes prevention and treatment. Prevention of EDS in chickens can be done by increasing biosecurity, especially in terms of cage sanitation. Good cage sanitation can minimize the occurrence of various viral diseases.

Until now, there is no effective treatment for Egg Drop Syndrome in chickens. Therefore, the most effective strategy is prevention by programmatically conducting EDS vaccination.

E. Conclusion

EDS’76 disease or Egg Drop Syndrome – 1976 is a viral disease caused by an adenovirus of the adenoviridae family. This virus attacks various species of poultry, such as chickens, ducks, turkeys, and geese. The process of transmission can occur vertically through eggs from parent to chicks, and horizontally through contamination of food and drink.

Until now, there is no effective and efficient treatment to treat chickens or other poultry that are attacked by EDS. Thus, prevention such as increasing biosecurity and programmed vaccination must be carried out properly. Because, if a chicken in a large farm is infected with EDS, it is not impossible that it will be transmitted to healthy chickens.

Therefore, increasing knowledge about various diseases in poultry, such as EDS, must continue. Thank you for reading the article about EDS or EGG Drop Syndrome in chickens. Dont forget to read more articles in animalcare.space

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Bibliography :

  • Directorate of Animal Health. 2014. Manual of Poultry Diseases. Directorate of Animal Health, Directorate of Livestock Production Development, Ministry of Agriculture RI, Jakarta Indonesia.
  • Fitriawati, Fidyah., et al. 2015. Isolation and Identification of Egg Drop Syndrome Virus by Hemagglutination and Hemagglutination Inhibition Test. Yogyakarta: Gajdah Mada University. Journal of Veterinary Science. ISSN : 0126 – 0421.
  • Kencana, Gusti Ayu Yuniati., et al. 2017. Immune Response of Laying Hens Post-vaccination for Newcastle Disease and Egg Drop Syndrome. Denpasar : Udayana University. Journal of Veterinary Science. ISNN : 2407-3733.
Gigih Fikrillah S
Gigih Fikrillah S

Hi ! I am a veterinary student at Universitas Airlangga. I hope that what I wrote can help you to change the world. Laatahzan

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