Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :
- Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
- Free From Thermal and Physical Discomfort
- Free From Injury, Illness and Pain
- Freedom to Express Most Normal Behavior Patterns
- Free from Fear and Troubles
Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :
Fowl pox in chicken is an infectious disease caused by a virus. Fowl pox virus can infect various types of poultry such as turkeys, chickens, birds, and various other types of poultry. There are several different strains of the Pox virus, according to the host that is the subject of infection. As with other diseases, fowl pox can also cause harm. If not treated immediately, the virus can easily spread and become an epidemic.
The existence of the fowl pox virus is very worrying for the community, both from chicken farmers and consumers. Because fowl pox virus is zoonotic. That means this virus can be transmitted from animals to humans, or vice versa.
Therefore, it is necessary to take various preventive measures, such as vaccination to prevent fowl pox disease, which can end up at any time. In this article we will talk about the causes, symptoms, modes of transmission, treatment, and prevention of fowl pox in chicken.
Fowl pox in chicken is an infectious disease caused by a virus from the family Poxviridae, genus Avipox. This virus is composed of double stranded DNA with elementary bodies measuring about 250×354 nm and shaped like a brick (brick shape) (Directorate of Animal Health, 2014).
There are 4 strains of Pox virus in poultry, such as Fowl pox virus that attacks chickens, Turkey pox virus that attacks turkeys, Pigeon pox virus that attacks pigeons, and Canary pox virus that attacks canaries. Despite showing modifications in the host, all fowl pox viruses are immunologically related.
Also read article about EDS in Chicken – Egg Drop Syndrome.
There are two forms of fowl pox in chicken, namely the cutaneous form or skin form, and the diphtheric form of the digestive tract. Each form of smallpox certainly has different clinical symptoms.
On the skin of chickens that are not covered with feathers, warts that resemble nodules can be found, including on the legs, comb, pia, and eyelids. Chickens will look weak and thin due to decreased appetite. In addition, chickens also look difficult to breathe because the airways are closed.
The form of diphtheria or wet pox is usually reported to occur in local chickens and turkeys, characterized by the presence of diphtheric lesions, the appearance of a yellowish color on the mucous membranes of the mouth, esophagus, and trachea.
The density of the cage and poor sanitation of the cage can facilitate the transmission of fowl pox disease. Transmission can occur directly or indirectly. Direct transmission can occur through direct contact of sick chickens with healthy chickens.
For example, healthy chickens peck each other with sick chickens, the virus can enter through open wounds. Transmission can also occur through the scabs of chickens suffering from fowl pox.
Indirect transmission can occur through ectoparasites, such as mosquitoes, fleas, and some types of flies. Some species of ectoparasites that suck the blood of poultry will be the agent of fowl pox disease transmission. Agents of disease transmission are called vectors.
As with other viral diseases, fowl pox in chicken also does not have an effective drug to use. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent fowl pox disease from occurring. Prevention can be done by giving vaccines to poultry. Vaccination should be carried out on healthy chickens, so that maximum antibodies are formed.
Vaccines can be applied to chickens by scratching a needle on the wing-web. Previously, the needle had been dipped in the vaccine. Fowl pox vaccination can be done on chickens at 4 weeks of age, while laying hens can be done 1-2 months before laying eggs.
In Indonesia, fowl pox disease has spread throughout the region. It has even attacked ducks and birds. Several things related to the occurrence of fowl pox disease are caused by livestock negligence. Such as not carrying out a vaccination program or poor cage sanitation. Likewise with pet birds. Like canaries, which are susceptible to fowl pox virus. Therefore, continue to evaluate the sanitation of the cage, whether it is good or not.
Thank you for reading article about fowl pox in chickens. I hope this article can helps. I like to eat chicken.