Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :

  • Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
  • Free From Thermal and Physical Discomfort
  • Free From Injury, Illness and Pain
  • Freedom to Express Most Normal Behavior Patterns
  • Free from Fear and Troubles

 

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4 Procedures of Ovariohysterectomy in Cats

Before knowing about ovariohysterectomy in cats, it’s a good idea to first understand why a female cat is castrated. The population of feral cats that are increasing day by day is disturbing the community. Because it is related to the health of the human environment. Abandoned feral cats will get various diseases from their lifestyle, such as eating used food that is in the trash.

Of course, this can increase the possibility of spreading the disease. Therefore, a solution is needed to suppress the wild cat population which is increasingly booming.

There are various ways to reduce the cat population which is increasing day by day, one of which is by sterilizing female cats. There are two methods that can be used to sterilize female cats, namely removal of the ovaries (Ovariectomy) and removal of the ovaries and uterus (Ovariohysterectomy). Each sterilization method can be selected based on the physical condition and age of the female cat.

Ovariohysterectomy (OH) in female cats is not only associated with a decrease in the cat population, but is also useful as a therapeutic method in cats suffering from pyometra, endometritis, uterine tumors, mammary gland neoplasia, cysts, and hyperplasia.

Therefore, it is important for veterinarians and veterinary paramedics to know the things that must be considered in the Ovariohysterectomy (OH) procedure.

A. Definition of OH

Ovariohysterectomy in cats is the process of removing the ovaries and uterus as a sterilization method so that pregnancy does not occur, in other words, castration of female cats. Ovariohysterectomy is a combination of two words, namely ovariectomy and hysterectomy. Ovariectomy is the act of amputating, removing, and removing the ovaries from the abdominal cavity (abdominal cavity). Hysterectomy is an act of amputating, removing, and removing the uterus from the abdominal cavity.

In medical terms, desexing in female cats is called “Spaying” and in male cats it is called “Neutering”.
The method used in the sterilization of male cats is Orchiectomy or Orchidectomy. We will discuss in the next article about castration in cats.

B. The purpose of OH in Cats

There are various purposes for the Ovariohysterectomy in female cats, namely as follows:
• Prevent a drastic increase in the cat population
• Treatment methods for some reproductive diseases, such as ovarian tumors, uterine tumors, ovarian cysts, pyometra, and some other reproductive diseases
• Reduce stress levels in cats
• Avoid parental abnormality that may be inherited
• Improve cat welfare

C. The Procedure of Ovariohysterectomy in Cats

Similar to surgery in general, OH surgery in cats includes preoperative, premedication and anesthesia, surgery, and postoperative procedures. Of course, prior to surgery, an anamnesis must be made on the animal concerned. In addition, an understanding of the female cat’s reproductive system must also be good. Look at the following picture :

ovariohysterctomy in cats

So, you must read the article about The Reproductive System of the Cat : Male and Female. Here is a description of various procedures in a series of Ovariohysterectomy or OH operations in female cats :

● Pre Operation OH

Pre Operation is the preparation of everything before the operation begins, especially the preparation of the operating room and the preparation of operating equipment. Because in an operation, it takes a place and a sterile tool to avoid bacterial and viral infections.

Preparation of the operating room and operating equipment is also aimed at minimizing the occurrence of operating accidents, because all things have been carefully prepared.

Operation Room Preparation

The operating room can be sterilized using Ultraviolet (UV) light. Another sterilization method that can be done is fumigation with formalin and KMNO4 in a ratio of 1:2 for 15 minutes. The operating room used must also meet standards, such as the use of waterproof walls to avoid mold. This can be done by coating the walls with paint or chalk.

Operation Equipment Preparation

Prepare all the equipment needed during the operation process. Then sterilization using autoclave 121 degrees Celsius. The following are common equipment in the process of Ovariohysterectomy or OH surgery in cats:

  • Thermometer and Stethoscope
  • Scalpel number 3
  • Chirugis tweezers
  • Bent Scissors, Straight Scissors Pointed, and Scissors Straight Pointed
  • Needle holders
  • Ovariohysterectomy hook
  • Towel clamp
  • Bend arterial forceps, Anatomical artery forceps, and Chirugis artery forceps
  • Sewing needle
  • Catgut chromic 3/0 and silk suture
  • Duster, Cotton, Cloth and Bandage
  • Use of sterile clothing such as surgical gowns, gloves, masks, and surgical caps.

● Premedication and Anesthesia OH

Prior to premedication and anesthesia, animals were fasted for at least 4 hours to avoid vomiting during surgery. Because vomiting during surgery can interfere with the cat’s breathing.

Premedication or preanesthesia is the act of administering medication before anesthesia is performed, where it is useful to reduce fear and the risk of amnesia, as well as to prevent things that were not done during the operation, such as hypersalivation, bradycardia, and vomiting.

Premedication for surgery on cat OH can be done by giving Atropine Sulfate according to the applicable dose calculation, because different body weights have different doses that must be given. After premedication is done, the next process is to perform anesthesia. In OH surgery, the type of anesthesia used is general anesthesia.

Anesthesia drugs given were Ketamine 10% and Xylazine 2% according to the Intramuscular (IM) dose. The combination of these two drugs produces the ideal anesthetic, which is a strong analgesic with good muscle relaxation.

● Ovariohysterectomy Surgery in Cats

The process of OH surgery on cats is done by shaving the cat’s hair 5-10 cm in the area to be cut. After that washed with soap and dried with a dry towel. Then given antiseptic alcohol 70% then given iodine tincture 3%. In this case, 70% alcohol can be used as an antiseptic or a disinfectant.

The first action in the operation is done by placing a surgical cover on the cat’s body with a hole in the part to be cut. After that, clamping was done on the ventral abdomen from the Xyphoid to the pubis.
The incision is made in the caudal 1/3 of the abdomen with a length of about 4-8 cm. The incision is oriented to the linea alba with the first incision in the skin, subcutaneously, line alba, then the peritoneum.

When the abdominal cavity was opened, the uterine cornua was explored using an ovarian hook. Where, the ovary hook is directed inward and rotated medially to perform the lift. After the ovary is found, the suspensory ligament adjacent to the kidney is cut. Cutting must be done carefully, because there are ovarian blood vessels in the area.

After the dexter et sinister ovaries were found, the mesovarium (ovary hanger) was clamped using arterial forceps and then tied with thread. After that, clamping is done using two arterial forceps on the caudal side and a cut is made between the two forceps.

When the excision was successful, a hole is made in the ligament below the caudal ovary. Then 2 or 3 forceps are placed under the blood vessels to clamp the proximal ovarian pedicel. After that, the pedicel was tied using two knots of catgut chromic 3/0.

After the bond is strong, the ligament is cut between the bonds that bind the suspensory ligaments and the clamps that clamp the ovary. After that, a check is made to see if there is bleeding or not. If safe, arterial forceps on the proximal suspensory ligament can be removed immediately.

The next stage is the cutting and removal of the uterus. The uterus is traced to the bifurcation and body of the uterus. Then the uterine body was clamped using clamps, followed by tracing the other uterus with the same action.

The two uteri that have been excised are removed until the body of the uterus is found, then holes are made in the ligaments that hang the uterus, arteries, and veins. Clamp all the ligaments, make a strong bond then cut. After confirming that there is no bleeding, the clamps on the uterus can be removed, for further repositioning of the uterus and omentum into the abdominal cavity.

After the repositioning is complete, then suture is performed on the Aponeurose Musculus obliqus abdominis externus and Musculus abdominis externus. Make sure the peritoneum is sutured without the omentum being sutured.

For animals that have enough fat, continuous suturing can be done. The final suture is performed on the skin with simple sutures. During the suturing and after the suturing is complete, antibiotics are given to the wound area. Then given 3% iodine tincture, and then use the bandage.

● Post Operation OH

Post surgery is a series of actions after surgery aimed at supporting the patient’s healing process. Post surgery includes treatment, care, and observation. Here are some postoperative actions performed in Ovariohysterectomy or OH surgery in cats:

  • Giving antibiotics twice a day orally for 5 days
  • Giving povidone iodine to the wound area
  • Observation of body normality, such as heart rate, breath, temperature, urine, feces, appetite, and the most important thing is observation of stitches
  • On the 7th day the stitches can be opened and embalmed
  • Providing adequate nutrition during the healing period
  • The cleanliness of the cat cage must also be maintained so that bacterial infection does not occur

D. Conclusion

Ovariohysterectomy (OH) has an important role in veterinary medicine. Because OH can be used as a therapy for various animal diseases, such as pyometra, ovarian tumors, uterine tumors, ovarian cysts, and several other reproductive diseases.

I personally think that castration is only done for sterilization so that copulation and pregnancy do not occur. However, it’s more than that. Castration in cats can help his survival when he is exposed to reproductive diseases.

Thank you for reading the article about OH in cats, I hope this article helps. Please comment if there are criticisms and suggestions. Because here we students are still learning together. Veterinary Viva!

Bibliography :

  • Hidayati, Dina Anisa Isnu. 2014. Practical Report of Orchiectomy Special Surgery in Cats. Malang : Special Surgery Laboratory. Universitas Brawijaya Veterinary Medicine Program.
  • IPB. Ovariohysterectomy. Surgical radiology. Accessed through the website web.ipb.ac.id on December 15, 2019.
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Gigih Fikrillah S

Hi ! I am a veterinary student at Universitas Airlangga. I hope that what I wrote can help you to change the world. Laatahzan

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