Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare :

  • Freedom From Hunger and Thirst
  • Free From Thermal and Physical Discomfort
  • Free From Injury, Illness and Pain
  • Freedom to Express Most Normal Behavior Patterns
  • Free from Fear and Troubles

 

www.animalcare.space

Rabies : Causes, Symptoms, Transmission

Rabies is one of the many dangerous viruses. If not treated immediately, the rabies virus can cause a person to die. Therefore, it is important for all of us to learn about the rabies virus, whether it causes, symptoms, how it is transmitted, or the rabies virus itself.

Rabies is one of the many dangerous viruses. If not treated immediately, the rabies virus can cause a person to die. Therefore, it is important for all of us to learn about the rabies virus, whether it causes, symptoms, how it is transmitted, or the rabies virus itself.

Indonesia is an archipelagic country that still has “homework” to do in dealing with this rabies case. ”Since 1995, Indonesia has never been declared free of the rabies virus. It is found that 1,500 are exposed to the rabies virus per year,” said Steven in the commemoration of World Rabies Day 2018 (Bureau of Communication and Community Services, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, 2018),

From 2011 to 2017, there have been more than 500,000 cases of Rabies Transmitting Animal Bites (RTAB) that have been reported in Indonesia, as well as 836 positive cases of rabies. Where Asia and Africa are the largest contributors to rabies cases, reaching 95% (Bureau of Communication and Community Services, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, 2018).

Therefore, it is emphasized to all people to follow the rabies vaccine. Because, the motility of the rabies virus in someone who does not vaccinate reaches 100% and causes death. Some animals such as cats, dogs, and monkeys are vectors or transmitters of the rabies virus that are most commonly encountered in field cases. The bites of these animals allow the rabies virus to easily enter the human body, and attack several vital organs. The diagnosis made by the Veterinary Center is very helpful in eradicating the rabies virus in the field.

In Veterinary Center, various diagnoses are carried out such as FAT (Fluorescent Antibody Technique), MIT (Mouse Inoculation Test), or FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralization Test) where FAVN is the most recommended serological test by OIE (Office Internationale des Epizooties).

Also read about : “Case Study : Rectal Prolapse in Cats”

By utilizing the reactions of antigens, antibodies, and fluorescents, the rabies virus will glow in the dark. The test is carried out by taking samples which are the source of the rabies virus in action, namely the brain, especially the hypocampus.

A. Development of Rabies Virus Diagnosis

Here are some rabies detections that have been carried out in Indonesia :

  • Detection of wild dog rabies using the straw method
  • Corneal examination of humans suspected of being affected by the rabies virus
  • FAVN (Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralization) test
  • Diagnosis of rabies virus by NPLA (Neutralization Peroxidase Linked Assay)
  • ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay)
  • RT-PCR (Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction)
  • RREID (Rapid Rabies Enzyme Immunodiagnostic)
  • FAT (Fluorcent Antibody Technique)

B. Definition of the Rabies Virus

Rabies is a virus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. Rabies virus belongs to the genus Lyssavirus with the family Rhabdoviridae, where the rabies virus is zoonotic. Transmission can occur due to bites or saliva from the licks of animals exposed to the rabies virus.

In addition, also mucosal contact, as well as through the anus from the digestive system. Animals that become vectors of the rabies virus are cats, dogs, monkeys, wolves, skunks, bats, and raccoons. Rabies virus is shaped like a bullet, which is single stranded RNA with a size of 180×75µm (Jawetz, 2010). For more details, consider the following description of the rabies virus :

rabies viruses transversal
A. Transversal Image
rabies viruses longitudinal
B. Longitudinal Image

C. Transmission (Patogenesis) Rabies Virus

Rabies virus can be transmitted from animals to humans in several ways :

  • Bite
  • Eye Conjunctiva
  • Anus
  • genitals, and
  • Corneal Transplant

Most transmission is caused by bites. An open wound from a bite makes it easy for the rabies virus to enter the human body, attaching itself to the posterior nerve endings where the wound is open for approximately 2 weeks. Depending on how big the bite wound, how wide the cross-section of the nerves in the area affected by the bite, as well as the individual’s immune system. After that, the rabies virus will go to the CNS (Central Nervous System).

Rabies virus will multiply in the brain, then expand its spread through the autonomic nervous system or peripheral nerves. So that almost all organs are infected by this rabies virus. Amazingly, the rabies virus does not show signs on the bite mark, such as the nerve damage it infects.

D. Clinical Symptoms of Rabies

Individuals infected with the rabies virus will usually experience several clinical symptoms after the bite for approximately 1-4 days. As :

  • Fever
  • Muscle Pain (Myalgia: in medical language)
  • Disorders of the Respiratory System (Respiratory) and Digestive System (Digestive)
  • Weak and Lethargic (Malaise : in medical language)

After the initial symptoms occur, then some serious symptoms arise, such as hallucinations, seizures, to hydrophobia due to spasm of the inspiratory muscles because the brain stem has been damaged, and Aerophobia. In addition, also postural hypotension, increased sweating and salivation.

Where Hyper Salivation and difficulty swallowing make the mouth foam like a clinical symptom in people who are poisoned. After that, people with rabies virus will experience complete paralysis, cause coma, and eventually die of respiratory failure in most cases.

The mild rabies virus in animals makes them lazy and weak. Fear of sunlight, also hyper salivation as a result of difficulty swallowing. Meanwhile, the manifestation of the malignant rabies virus in animals makes the animals more aggressive.

Therefore, as a pet owner, it is obligatory to vaccinate against rabies. In Indonesia itself, usually a free rabies vaccine will be carried out on (World Rabies Day). Because clinical symptoms in animals are certainly different from humans.

E. Conclusion

Rabies is a deadly virus that people must be aware of. Symptoms that are not known in the early stages of clinical symptoms or prodromal symptoms make the rabies virus difficult to detect.

Therefore, immediately report any animal bites such as dogs, cats, monkeys, bats, wolves, and raccoons to the nearest medical office. Your report will prevent thousands of other rabies virus transmissions caused by animals.

Bibliography :

  • Adjid, R.M.A., et al. Rabies in Indonesia and the Development of Diagnostic Techniques. Bogor : Veterinary Research Institute. Bureau of Communication and Community Services, Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia. 2018. Rabies is the Most Deadly Disease in the World.
  • Dartini, Ni Luh., et al. 2012. Comparative Test of Two ELISA KITs for Detection of Antibodies Against Rabies Virus in Dogs. Udayana University : Faculty of Veterinary Medicine.
  • Jawetz., et al. 2013. Medical Microbiology. The McGraw-Hill Companies : ISBN: 978-0-07-181578-9
  • Tanzil, Kunadi. 2014. Rabies Disease and Its Management. Indonesian Catholic University : Microbiology ISSN 2338-7793.
Default image
Gigih Fikrillah S

Hi ! I am a veterinary student at Universitas Airlangga. I hope that what I wrote can help you to change the world. Laatahzan

Articles: 14

Leave a Reply