There are various types of uterus in animals, namely simplex, duplex, didelphia, bipartite, and bicornua types. Before getting to know more about the type of uterus, it’s a good idea to know the location, structure, and function of the general anatomy of the uterus.
The female reproductive tract consists of the tuba falopii, uterus, cervix, and vagina, with the main genital organs known as female gonads or ovum. Each animal has a structure of the reproductive tract that is different from one another, for example in the uterus.
Uterus is the female reproductive tract that serves to receive fertilized eggs or ovum. In addition, the uterus also functions as a place of protection for the fetus, as well as a conductor of nutrients for fetal growth.
Basically, Uterus consists of three important parts, namely the corpus uteri (body of the uterus), the cornua uteri (uterine horns) which amount to a pair, and the cervix. Here are some types of uters that you should know.
Is a type of uterus that is owned by primates, including humans. In the simplex type uterus, there is no uterine cornua, while the uterine body is large and the cervix is only one.
In a duplex uterus, no uterine corpus formation was found. But it has two cervix and cornua which are separated from each other. Duplex uterus is owned by rabbits, guinea pigs, as well as rodents such as rats and mice.
Uterus didelphia is also known as an advanced duplex uterus. In this uterus, each canal such as the vagina, cervix, and uterine body is divided into two. This type of uterus can be found in marsupials such as kangaroos and platypuses.
The male penis has a structure that corresponds to this type of uterus, which is branched like a fork. When copulation occurs between male and female animals, the male’s penis will enter the two vaginal openings simultaneously.
Bipartite uterus can be found in ruminant animals such as goats, sheep, and cattle. Also in dogs and cats. This uterus has one cervix uteri, uterine bodies which are partially separated by a septum, and a pair of uterine horns.
Bicornua uterus has one uterine cervix and a very short uterine body. While the uterine cornua is spiral-shaped which is useful for accommodating the fetus. This type of uterus can be found in pigs.
Male pigs have a spiral-shaped penis, so the process of copulation will be easy to do. Sows can give birth to 8 to 12 chicks in one pregnancy. Therefore, the cornua uteri has such a morphology.
Knowing the type of uterus in animals is important for a veterinarian and inseminator. This is related to field practices such as artificial insemination (AI) activities. In AI activities, the recognition of uterine organs is very important because it affects the efficiency of releasing semen into the reproductive tract.
Also read article about Artificial Insemination of Chickens
The deeper the release of semen in the reproductive tract, the results will be better. Animals such as cows, goats, and sheep are animals that are often used as objects for artificial insemination to save on male maintenance costs.
There are several zones that can be targeted in artificial insemination. Such as zone one, zone two, zone three, and zone four. Each zone is used as a marker of how efficient the rate of spermatozoa release is in that zone.
Thank you for reading about uterine types in various animals. Keep in mind, that humans have a uterus with a simplex type. Viva Veteriner !
- Lestari, Tita Damayanti., Ismudiono. Animal Reproduction Science. Surabaya : Airlangga University Press. ISBN : 978-602-7924-41-3.